Terra Incognita: The next revolution: Economic Zionism Re blogged (by SethJ. Franzman from the Jerusalem Post)

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English: The delegates at the First Zionist Co...

English: The delegates at the First Zionist Congress in 1897 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Theodor Herzl: Der Judenstaat Deutsch: Theodor...

Theodor Herzl: Der Judenstaat Deutsch: Theodor Herzls Der Judenstaat – Titel der Erstausgabe von 1896 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Publicity photo of Zeev Jabotinsky, founder of...

Publicity photo of Zeev Jabotinsky, founder of the revisionnist party in 1925, a right wing political Zionist party. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: , alternative as used on the website ...

English: , alternative as used on the website of the Knesset of Israel. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

David Ben-Gurion (First Prime Minister of Isra...

David Ben-Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14 1948, Tel Aviv, Israel, beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism, in the old Tel Aviv Museum of Art building on Rothshild St. The exhibit hall and the scroll, which was not yet finished, were prepared by Otte Wallish. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Theodor Herzl (1860–1904), Austro-Hun...

English: Theodor Herzl (1860–1904), Austro-Hungarian journalist and the father of modern political Zionism Deutsch: Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), österreichisch-jüdischer Schriftsteller, Publizist und Journalist und Begründer des modernen politischen Zionismus (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Flag of Israel with the Mediterranean...

English: Flag of Israel with the Mediterranean sea in the background, in Rishon LeZion. עברית: דגל ישראל בראשון לציון (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Terra Incognita: The next revolution: Economic Zionism

10/29/2013 21:54
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A focus on finances, rather than on religion or ethnicity, can bridge the gaps and encourage social cohesion and mobility.

New Israeli Shekels

New Israeli Shekels Photo: Courtesy
Every week brings disturbing economic news for Israeli society. Although the general trend is reportedly positive, for average Israelis, economic survival is becoming increasingly difficult.A report issued by the Knesset Research and Information Center recently revealed that Israelis pay more in university tuition (NIS 10,000) than most EU residents.Another report at the education committee showed that Israelis are forced to spend NIS 1,165 more than they earn each month during their years in higher education. Students who work only earn NIS 2,197 a month, while they face outlays of NIS 1,400 as a minimum for housing. Only 6.6 percent of students have dorm rooms, which are often decrepit and noisy, and only 5% receive financial aid.

And as bad as these numbers are, tuition statistics are just a drop in the proverbial bucket.

OVER HALF of employed Israelis earn NIS 5,812 a month. While this places Israel in 24th place globally in terms of earnings, costs are often much higher than in Western states.

For example, in the US the median income is $30,300, but the median cost of a house is $152,000. In Israel the median cost of a new house was NIS 1.38 million ($383,000) in June 2013. In other words, Americans make twice as much as Israelis and pay half as much for a home.

EU income and housing prices are similar.

In Greece, where incomes are similar to Israel, housing prices are only 115,000 euros for fancy urban or vacation properties.

And it isn’t just real estate. Almost everything else in Israel is more expensive, whether it is sunscreen ($40), olive oil (three times the cost in the EU), honey, or fruits and vegetables, with no correlation to whether it is made in Israel or not. In fact, because of local lobby groups most locally made items are more expensive in Israel than abroad, while import prices are made artificially high to “protect” Israeli producers.

Identifying the problem is relatively easy, but the solution is cloudy. During the 2011 protests many Israelis called for a “welfare state” and massive expansion of government.

Some have chosen to leave the country and have been castigated for it.

But a third solution exists: A revolution aimed at rescuing the state from its economic failure. A Second Zionist Revolution: Economic Zionism.

IN THE history of Zionism there have been many movements. Initially there was the Political Zionism of Theodor Herzl which sought permission for a state, and the Practical Zionism of Leon Pinkser which sought to establish settlements in Ottoman Palestine.

Their ideas were inherited by the Labor Zionists, who sought to combine Zionism with socialism, and the Revisionist Zionists, who favored capitalism.

Others pioneered less radical movements, like Cultural Zionism, fanciful ideas like Territorial Zionism and more radical ideas like Revolutionary Zionism. Finally it is all capped off by Religious Zionism.

Since the establishment of the state we have been mired in the notion that Zionism has “succeeded,” but the truth is that since 1948 Zionism has atrophied. The revolution has been forgotten.

Now in the throes of the potential failure of Zionism – and make no mistake: the fact that the average Israeli cannot afford to live in Israel constitutes such a failure – a new notion must arise that can unite the country and build on its accomplishments.

This new idea is Economic Zionism, which proposes an economic basis for the success of the state, based on the economic success of its people.

HERZL IS often not credited with his economic vision, perhaps because the Socialist Zionists sought to alter his vision and destroy the economic basis of a state of private entrepreneurial citizens.

Herzl proclaimed in Der Judenstadt (1896) that “Private property, which is the economic basis of independence, shall be developed freely and be respected by us.

Our first unskilled laborers will at once have the opportunity to work their way up to private proprietorship.”

In Altneuland he foresaw a country with Jews living in dignified “small and charming houses intended for only one family” with “architecture which was fascinatingly varied.”

He believed that young men would serve two years of national service and be rewarded with free education through university.

There was a Zionist party, called the General Zionists, that fought for a country based on capitalism and individual rights and property, but it was marginalized in the first years of the state and merged with a Yemenite party and Herut to form the forerunner of Likud.

The Labor Zionists who dominated Israel in its first 30 years of existence did untold damage to the country through their concentration of assets in national monopolies and their national planning. The lasting effects are clear; port workers and Israel Electric Corporation employees make salaries of NIS 38,000-NIS 44,000 a month, because of their monopolies; the national airline, El Al, has a monopoly on many routes which mean the nation’s travelers are held hostage, paying up to 10 times what Europeans and others pay for flights.

Wealth has been concentrated into the hands of several dozen tycoon “families” that control most of the economy.

The development of an economic Zionist ethos means rejecting the old paradigms and slaughtering many of the state’s sacred cows. But it also promises to finally end the tragic ethnic divides that have brought shame on the Jewish people.

Since the state’s foundation politicians and cultural elites have mongered a racist mentality that has turned each group in Israeli society into a caricature, whether it is “haredim,” “Mizrahim,“ “Russians” or “Arabs.” Geographic and educational segregation have resulted in a fractured society.

It is no coincidence that the elections in Jerusalem were characterized as “tribal” and the “victory of secular Ashkenazim over Russians and Mizrahim.”

But these divisions are artificial; all the groups in Israeli society desire economic success and to live with dignity. Perhaps a focus on finances, rather than on religion or ethnicity, can bridge the gaps and encourage social cohesion and mobility.

A REVOLUTION in our economic thinking must be built on six pillars of change.

First, the land of Israel must be opened up to private ownership. Currently the state owns 93% of the land, and has managed it disastrously, allowing more than a million dunams to fall into the hands of squatters.

The concentration of land makes housing prices artificially high and strangles private initiatives such as solar farms, which take decades to plan in Israel despite ample resources.

Similarly, community acceptance committees should be abolished as they create artificial disparities by protecting tiny elite groups’ access to land – which mostly goes unused, such as the more than a million dunams in the hands of kibbutzim and moshavim.

Second, barriers to trade must be abolished.

Eight million Israeli consumers are being held hostage to tiny interest groups, such as the olive oil makers, with the result that millions must pay more to benefit the profits of a few who use their power over “fruit and vegetable boards” to artificially raise prices on imports through outrageous tariffs.

Free trade will make automobiles more readily available (currently Israelis pay more than most people in the world) and reduce prices of common household items.

Third, army service must be reformed.

Because of low pay (NIS 300 a month), it has become economically destructive for the poor, who run up massive debts during their IDF service. 14,000 Israelis spend time in military prison a year, mostly because they go AWOL to work.

Army service is viewed as a “burden” and as cudgel with which to integrate Israel’s splintered groups, which is not its purpose.

Pay for soldiers should be increased tenfold, soldiers should be provided free higher education, and the overall system should be reduced in size.

Fourth, the “integration” mentality vis a vis immigrants and minority groups should be reversed. Instead of the destruction of their culture and their assimilation into the poorest rungs of society in “development towns” being viewed as successful “integration,” Israel should seek to provide opportunities for immigrants based on their existing skills.

Instead of viewing Arab and haredi demographic growth as a “threat” to Israel, they should be viewed as a vast reservoir of talent, waiting to be tapped.

In the past Israel took in Ethiopian herders and farmers but forbade them to live in agricultural moshavim and kibbutzim. It took in highly educated Russians but mocked them, forcing them to work as security guards.

This mentality is destroying the country’s potential. Many immigrants describe lives in their former Ethiopia, Russia or Iraq as dignified and talk of being made to feel like “peasants” in Israel; a sad testimony to Labor Zionism’s attempt to “proletarianize” the Jewish people.

Jews occupied niches in their economies abroad, but in Israel the state became the niche, crushing the Jewish people with its paternalism and economic concentration.

Freeing the Jewish people to be Jews again requires reducing the state apparatus, the integrative monoculture and the vested interests to the maximum degree possible.

Fifth, the reduction of foreign aid to the Palestinians and Israel must be a goal of both groups in the peace process. This foreign aid creates artificial surpluses and scarcities in Israel, as well as dependency, as it has in the Palestinian territories. Israelis and Palestinians are the highest educated groups in the Middle East per capita, and the conflict is holding them back.

Taking down economic roadblocks to Palestinian growth and weaning Palestinians of the “need” to work in Israel will create opportunities for economic peace. At the same time money funneled into “peace” groups should be redirected toward education and skills training; the goal of peace groups is to stay in business by encouraging conflict.

Sixth, Israel is stuck patting itself on the back, but behind the facade of the “start up nation” is a darker side: Billion-dollar failures such as that of Better Place, corruption, nepotism, “proteksia,” grey-market employment and economic strife.

As Israel atrophies, the Gulf Arab economies, Singapore and many other states are passing it by. Israel doesn’t need to just be “better than Jordan,” it should aspire to be the best, period, which was precisely what Herzl had in mind when he noted that “the Jewish settlers who streamed into the country had brought with them the experience of the whole civilized world.”

WHO IS A JEWISH HERO?

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Paper Heroes Location 2

Paper Heroes Location 2 (Photo credit: roadkillbuddha)

The Center for Jewish History is located on 15...

The Center for Jewish History is located on 15 West 16th Street, between 5th and 6th Avenues, in New York, NY 10011. It is home of five preeminent Jewish institutions dedicated to history, culture, and art: The American Jewish Historical Society, The American Sephardi Federation, The Leo Baeck Institute, Yeshiva University Museum, and The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Sample Wikipedia template for Jewish Hhistory

Sample Wikipedia template for Jewish Hhistory (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Rows of bodies fill the yard of Lager...

English: Rows of bodies fill the yard of Lager Nordhausen, a Gestapo concentration camp. עברית: שורות של גופות מאות אסירים בחצר מחצה הריכוז נורדהאוזן. בתמונה נראות פחות ממחצית הגופות של האסירים שמתו ברעב או ביריות אנשי הגסטפו. Italiano: File di cadaveri di prigionieri riempiono il cortile del lager di Nordhausen, un campo di concentramento dalla Gestapo. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Moroccan Jewish women. From the 1901-1906 Jewi...

Moroccan Jewish women. From the 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, now in the public domain. Category:Jewish Encyclopedia images (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Jews praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur. (...

Jews praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur. (1878 painting by Maurycy Gottlieb) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Metal menorah

Metal menorah (Photo credit: Skyco)

English: Museum of jewish history and culture ...

English: Museum of jewish history and culture in Belarus Русский: Музей истории и культуры евреев Беларуси (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

American Jewish History

American Jewish History (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

WHO IS A JEWISH HERO?

This album was created from names suggested by our page fans after they were asked to send names of historical Jewish persons who showed outstanding heroism or leadership in exceptional conditions, sacrificing or endangering his/her life or freedom for the sake of the Jewish People and whose actions have left significant impact in Jewish history. The vote by the page followers on the 2013 Eight Lights of Heroism will be held on November 24, before the Chanukkah Festival,
 Mariedith O’Connor About Golda Meir

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10 Etiquette Rules For Meetings That Every Professional Should Know

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10 Etiquette Rules For Meetings That Every Professional Should Know

 Meeting EtiquetteMike Nudelman / Business Insider

Even if you dread them, meetings put you in front of coworkers and bosses who you may not work with on a regular basis. That means how you conduct yourself in them may leave a lasting impression.

Is it acceptable to eat during a meeting, or check your phone? Should you be the person asking questions at the end? If broken, the unwritten rules of meeting professionalism may damage your reputation.

To get a better idea of how to maintain a positive, professional image while in a meeting, we reached out to Barbara Pachter, career coach and author of the book “The Essentials Of Business Etiquette,” who gave us 10 rules you should know:

1. Be on time.

Make sure you come on time and prepare for the meeting ahead of time, says Pachter. You don’t want to waste anyone else’s time by not being punctual.

“Leaders need to start on time so people can depend on that,” she tells us.

2. Make introductions.

If everyone doesn’t know one another in the meeting room, you need to make introductions. You should do this by starting with the person of the highest rank first, says Pachter.

For example, “Ms. Greater Importance, I would like you to meet Mr. Lesser Importance.”

3. Have a strong agenda.

This is part of being prepared, but you should have a good, strong agenda so that you can stay on track. If you do get off track, you should have a strong facilitator to get you back on track, says Pachter.

4. Sit appropriately.

If it’s a sit-down meeting, you need to adjust your chair so that you’re at equal height with everyone else at the table. “Some people don’t adjust their chairs, so they end up being the little kid in the meeting,” says Pachter.

5. Speak up.

When people speak in meetings they need to speak loudly enough so that everyone hears what they’re saying. “Many men and women, especially women, do not speak loudly enough. And speaking softly is a subtle nonverbal action that can affect your professionalism,” says Pachter.

6. Understand the unwritten speaking rules.

It’s not polite to interrupt others, but in some meetings, you have to interrupt at some point or you won’t be heard. Understand the rules so that you can have a productive meeting.

7. Do not have your phone out.

A lot of people keep their phones on the table during meetings, says Pachter. Don’t do this. Even if you aren’t looking at your phone, it can get distracting if it starts lighting up or making noises.

“Put it in your pocket, keep it on vibrate, and leave the room if you have to take the call or return a text,” says Pachter. “It’s really, really rude to be texting during a meeting.”

8. You can drink coffee, but you need permission for anything else.

If you’re going to eat, it needs to be OK with the entire group, says Pachter. “You can make noise or give off smells” that are disruptive, so it needs to be OK with everyone.

9. Clean up after yourself.

This is especially true if you were drinking or eating during the meeting. You need to clean up after yourself and leave things the way you found them, says Pachter. Otherwise, it’s not professional.

10. Don’t save all your questions for the end.

Ask your questions at the appropriate time. Do not be the person who starts “asking questions and adding stuff that doesn’t need to be added” when everyone’s getting ready to go, warns Pachter.

Read more:http://www.businessinsider.com/10-etiquette-rules-for-meetings-that-every-professional-needs-to-know-2013-11#ixzz2lVfGyMHk

The 18 Most Inspiring Quotes about Israel

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Cropped image of Steven Spielberg

Cropped image of Steven Spielberg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: John F. Kennedy, photograph in the Ov...

English: John F. Kennedy, photograph in the Oval Office. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Steven Spielberg with Chandran Rutnam...

English: Steven Spielberg with Chandran Rutnamin the Gala Dinner held on Wednesday, December 9th, 2009 at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, honoring Steven Spielberg. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: President George W. Bush and Mrs. Lau...

English: President George W. Bush and Mrs. Laura Bush stand with the Kennedy Center honorees in the Blue Room of the White House during a reception Sunday, December 3, 2006. From left, they are: singer and songwriter William “Smokey” Robinson; musical theater composer Andrew Lloyd Webber; country singer Dolly Parton; film director Steven Spielberg; and conductor Zubin Mehta. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Former President Clinton with 2009 Li...

English: Former President Clinton with 2009 Liberty Medal recipient Steven Spielberg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Steven Spielberg at Hollywood Walk of Fame

Steven Spielberg at Hollywood Walk of Fame (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Elie Wiesel writer and spokesman on Holocaust ...

Elie Wiesel writer and spokesman on Holocaust issues addresses the US Congress (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Writer and political activist Elie Wi...

English: Writer and political activist Elie Wiesel at the Time 100 Gala, May 3, 2010. Photo by David Shankbone. This photos is licensed under the Attribution 3.0 license, which means it can be used and modified for any purpose only if the author is properly credited where it is used. Category: Elie Wiesel Category:Time 100 Gala (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen...

English: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, (left) presents a framed citation accompanying the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service to Steven Spielberg (right) in the Pentagon. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Jewish slave laborers in the Buchenwald concen...

Jewish slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp near Jena, Germany. (April 16, 1945). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The 18 Most Inspiring Quotes about Israel

By  on August 18, 2013
jfk1

Israel was not created in order to disappear – Israel will endure and flourish.

It is the child of hope and the home of the brave.

It can neither be broken by adversity nor demoralized by success.

It carries the shield of democracy and it honors the sword of freedom.

John F. Kennedy,  President of the United States

JFK

The only thing chicken about Israel is their soup.” –Bob Hope, Comedian

Bob Hope

Now, when I hear that Christians are getting together in order to defend the people of Israel, of course it brings joy to my heart. And it simply says, look, people have learned from history.” – Elie Wiesel, Professor & Political Activist

Elie_Wiesel

From the day I started to think politically and to develop my own moral values, from my earliest youth, I have been an ardent defender of Israel.” –Steven Spielberg, Film Director & Producer

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You know, I get much more Jewish in Israel because I like the way that religion is done there.” – Natalie Portman, Israeli-born Actress

Natalie_Portman

We in Congress stand by Israel. In Congress, we speak with one voice on the subject of Israel.” – Nancy Pelosi, Minority Leader of the US House of Representatives

Nancy_Pelosi

In Israel, in order to be a realist you must believe in miracles.” – David Ben-Gurion, first Prime Minister of Israel

“No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as Jerusalem has done in the life of the Jewish people.” – David Ben-Gurion, first Prime Minister of Israel

Ben_Gurion_1959

“Jerusalem is a port city on the shore of eternity.” – Yehuda Amichai, Israeli Poet

yehuda-amichai

“The United States and Israel have enjoyed a friendship built on mutual respect and commitment to democratic principles. Our continuing search for peace in the Middle East begins with a recognition that the ties uniting our two countries can never be broken.” – George W. Bush, President of the United States

George-W-Bush

“No thoughtful man can deny the fact that the Jews are, beyond any question, the most formidable and most remarkable race which has appeared in the world.” – Winston Churchill, UK Prime Minister

Winston_Churchill

“We have recently been hearing threats calling for Israel’s destruction. The IDF is ready for any scenario. We will reach anywhere at any time and protect this nation.” – Benny Gantz, Chief of General Staff to the IDF

benny gantz

“We can forgive the Arabs for killing our children. We cannot forgive them for forcing us to kill their children… We will only have peace with the Arabs when they love their children more that they hate us.” – Golda Meir, Former Israeli Prime Minister

Golda Meir

“In Israel, free men and women are every day demonstrating the power of courage and faith. Back in 1948 when Israel was founded, pundits claimed the new country could never survive. Today, no one questions that. Israel is a land of stability and democracy in a region of tyranny and unrest.” – Ronald Reagan, President of the United States

ronald reagan

“I had faith in Israel before it was established … I believe it has a glorious future before it – not just another sovereign nation, but as an embodiment of the great ideals of our civilization.” – Harry S. Truman, President of the United States

Harry-truman

“We are a nation that loves the peace. We will never stop growing and developing but we know how to protect ourselves using force.” – Moshe Yaalon, former Chief of Staff to the IDF

moshe yaalon

“I have made it a top priority for my administration to deepen cooperation with Israel across the whole spectrum of security issues — intelligence, military, technology.” – Barack Obama, President of the United States

Barack Obama

“American and Israel share a special bond. Our relationship is unique among all nations. Like America, Israel is a strong democracy, a symbol of freedom, and an oasis of liberty, a home to the oppressed and persecuted.” – Bill Clinton, President of the United States

bill clinton

– – –

Photos: Wikipedia

Evolution of Black Majority Rule in South Africa

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Press Conference by President of African Natio...

Press Conference by President of African National Congress of South Africa (Photo credit: United Nations Photo)

English: Map showing the territorial four main...

English: Map showing the territorial four main races/ethnicities/colors of South Africa in 1979: Whites, Coloureds, Blacks and Indians. The gray areas indicate the Apartheid-era Bantustans, which are almost exclusively black. This map is a photoshopped version of the CIA-made original map at Perry Castañeda map collection at the University of Texas website. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Map showing, for each electoral ward ...

English: Map showing, for each electoral ward in South Africa, the percentage of votes in the 2009 National Assembly election that were cast for the African National Congress. 0–20% 20–40% 40–60% 60–80% 80–100% (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

United Democratic Front (South Africa)

United Democratic Front (South Africa) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: South Africa (orthographic projection)

English: South Africa (orthographic projection) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Early activism over the issue of sporting cont...

Early activism over the issue of sporting contacts with apartheid South Africa (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Signs on a beach in , , . The top sign is in E...

Signs on a beach in , , . The top sign is in English and ; the English version states: “White persons only. This beach & the amenities thereof have been reserved for white persons only. By order, Provincial Secretary.” The bottom sign indicates that dogs are not permitted on the beach. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Taken and donated by Guinnog.

Taken and donated by Guinnog. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The original architects of apartheid gathered ...

The original architects of apartheid gathered around a map of a planned township. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Anti-apartheid protest in London, UK,...

English: Anti-apartheid protest in London, UK, at South Africa House (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“For use by white persons” – sign from the apa...

“For use by white persons” – sign from the apartheid era Español: “Sólo para blancos” – letrero de la era del apartheid (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Negotiations to End Apartheid in South Africa

Negotiations to End Apartheid in South Africa (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

South Africa

South Africa (Photo credit: United Nations Photo)

Apartheid in South Africa

Apartheid in South Africa (Photo credit: United Nations Photo)

On the African continent, civic organisations have been associated with national liberation movements and trade unions, they challenged the laws that underpinned the system of settler colonialism. While these organisations are supposed to be located outside of the formal governmental, party-political or development-agency institutions, they are often affiliated to political organisations. In the South African context, civic organisations were historically radical, community-based organisations that were established to protest and attempt to improve the living conditions under the apartheid system. Thus to understand the posture and orientation of civic organisations in South Africa, it is necessary to first give a brief analysis of the socio-political milieu of townships, the birthplace of the civic movement, in apartheid South Africa.

The establishment of townships in South Africa came as a result of the promulgation of the Native Affairs Urban Areas Act, which made provision for the establishment of a special kind of township that was intended as a habitat for migrant black labourers who toiled in the mines of Witwatersrand and the homes of white people. These townships were situated close enough to the metropolis to make allowance for black workers to commute, but far enough that they would not taint ivory towers of white existence with blackness. The infrastructure in these townships was of inferior quality and there was poor sanitation, with rubbish bins overflowing, sewage pipes blocked and streets unpaved. These poor conditions became a fertile ground for nurturing a community consciousness and for developing a resistance culture among black township residents.

The banning of national liberation movements in South Africa in the mid-1960s created a political vacuum that led to the growth in community consciousness. During the period of the 1970s, the ANC, the PAC and other liberation movements had little organisational presence inside the country. As a result, from the late 1970s, civic organisations that emerged in townships were at the forefront of struggles. These organisations became key players in the resistance movement, with their strategic thrust being that of seizing power from the apartheid government and its structures at a local level. They mobilised township residents against the state towards the realisation of an apartheid-free South Africa. This civics contributed to the formation of the SA National Civics Organisation (Sanco) in 1992, a civic organisation that is a component of the ANC-led Mass Democratic Movement (MDM).

The importance of Sanco belonging to the anti-apartheid MDM pre-1994 is evident. However, the orientation of the civic movement in the post-apartheid period is different to that of the former dispensation. The most important factor that is giving rise to the emergence of new social movements in our country is the high and growing levels of poverty, unemployment and inequality that characterise our current society. These triple challenges are a result of both an inherited apartheid past (in which a two-tier economic system that marginalised the black majority existed) and a post-apartheid government that is defined by maladministration, corruption and misappropriation of state resources. And so in essence, post-1994 civic movements are a response to the specific and real failures of a democratic state in the form of the ANC government to deliver on its responsibilities to the citizens it governs.

The reality of the situation is that the pre-1994 ANC is not the same one we have today. As such, the argument that civil society must work with government does not hold, because ours is not a progressive government that truly champions working-class interests. The former ANC was a liberation movement fighting against an unjust system that stratified people on the basis of race and class. Today, it is a bourgeois nationalist organisation that harbours the worst elements within its leadership ranks, and one that, through policies such as BEE and the controversial willing-buyer, willing-seller policy undermines the land-redistribution process and protects the interests of capital.

Sanco therefore cannot continue to belong to an alliance with a ruling party that is attempting (lugubriously) to represent the interests of the working-class majority and the bourgeoisie, at a time when Africa is faced with a neo-liberal crisis and imperial devastation at whose receiving end the poor majority is located. Furthermore, its alliance with the ruling party alienates many people because the working class itself, while it has common struggles, is not homogenous in its political outlook. Some of us love civil society but we do not want to work within the alliance.

The responsibility of reclaiming the civil-society space, in a quest to fulfil a historical mission of consolidating the struggles of the working-class masses, is one that Sanco must necessarily take. The failure to do this will result in the death of a gallant organisation and the birth of potentially reactionary formations that will undermine the revolutionary gains our country claimed through blood and sweat.

Thirty-second government of Israel ( drom Wikipedia )

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Silvan Shalom

Silvan Shalom (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: 2009 Benjamin Netanyahu campaign post...

English: 2009 Benjamin Netanyahu campaign posters in Jerusalem. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Benjamin Netanyahu, Israeli politician

English: Benjamin Netanyahu, Israeli politician (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thirty-second government of Israel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Netanyahu II cabinet
32nd Cabinet of Israel
Flag of Israel.svg
Benjamin Netanyahu portrait.jpg
Date formed 31 March 2009
Date dissolved 18 March 2013
People and organizations
Head of government Benjamin Netanyahu
Deputy head of government Silvan Shalom
Moshe Ya’alon
Ehud Barak
Avigdor Lieberman
Dan Meridor
Eli Yishai
Shaul Mofaz (from 8 May 2012 to 17 July 2012)
Head of state Shimon Peres
Member party Likud
Yisrael Beiteinu
Shas
Labor Party (until 17 January 2011)
The Jewish Home
Independence (from 17 January 2011)
United Torah Judaism (from 1 April 2009)
Kadima (from 8 May 2012 to 17 July 2012)
Status in legislature Coalition
Opposition cabinet Shadow government
Opposition party Kadima
Opposition leader Shaul Mofaz
History
Election(s) Knesset elections, 2009
Legislature term(s) 18th Knesset
Incoming formation 2009
Previous 31st
Successor 33rd

The Thirty-second government of Israel, also known as the Second Netanyahu Government,[1] was the largest cabinet in the country’s history, in terms of the number of ministers: initially containing 30 ministers and nine deputy ministers, it later added another deputy prime minister as of May 2012 until he resigned in July 2012.[2]

Formation[edit]

Following the 2009 Knesset elections, the new government was formed on 31 March 2009. It consisted of a coalition of LikudYisrael BeiteinuShas, the Labor Party and The Jewish Home.

Changes since formation[edit]

On 1 April 2009, United Torah Judaism joined as well.

In January 2011, Labor Party leader Ehud Barak formed a breakaway party, Independence, which enabled him to maintain his loyal Labor’s MK faction within Netanyahu’s government, and prevented the departure of Labor party as a whole from Netanyahu’s coalition-government. Labor previously threatened to force Barak to do so. After Barak’s move, Netanyahu was able to maintain a majority of 66 MK (out 120 in theKnesset), previously having 74 MKs within his majority coalition.

On the 8th of May 2012, following weeks of speculation that early elections would be called, Netanyahu announced a new National Unity Coalitionafter striking a deal with Kadima head Shaul Mofaz bringing the coalition majority to 94 MKs, the largest in Israeli history.[3]

Kadima subsequently left the ruling coalition on 17 July due to a dispute over the Tal Law.[4]

Basic policy guidelines[edit]

A paper presented to the Knesset’s approval alongside the Government said that the Government will:[5]

  • actively seek to fortify the national security and bestow personal security on its citizens while vigorously and determinedly fighting against violence and terror.
  • advance the political process and act to promote peace with all our neighbors, while preserving the security, historic and national interests of Israel.
  • advance a program to deal with the economic crisis and act to create economic conditions that will allow for sustainable growth, as well as create and maintain jobs in the economy.
  • strive for social justice by reducing social gaps and uncompromisingly fight against poverty through education, employment and an increase in assistance to the weaker segments of the population.
  • place the issue of immigration and immigrant absorption at the top of its list of priorities and will work vigorously to increase immigration from all countries of the world.
  • place education at the center of its list of national priorities and will act to advance reforms in the education system.
  • preserve the Jewish character of the State and the legacy of Israel, as well as honor the religions and traditions of members of other religions in the country in accordance with the values of the Declaration of Independence.
  • act to advance governmental reforms to improve stability and governability.
  • act to fortify the rule of law in Israel.
  • act to protect the environment in Israel, improve the quality of life for the residents of the country and increase Israel’s participation in contributing to the global effort with regard to the climate and the environment.

Cabinet members[edit]

The cabinet has 30 members.

Portfolio Minister Party
Prime Minister
Minister of Economic Strategy
Minister of Health
Minister of Pensioner Affairs
Benjamin Netanyahu Likud
Vice Prime Minister
Minister of Development of the Negev and Galilee
Minister of Regional Development
Silvan Shalom Likud
Vice Prime Minister
Minister of Strategic Affairs
Moshe Ya’alon Likud
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Defense
Ehud Barak Independence
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Avigdor Lieberman Yisrael Beitenu
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Intelligence and Atomic Energy
Dan Meridor Likud
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Internal Affairs
Eli Yishai Shas
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Orit Noked Independence
Minister of Communications Moshe Kahlon Likud
Minister of Culture and Sport Limor Livnat Likud
Minister of Education Gideon Sa’ar Likud
Minister of Energy and Water Uzi Landau Yisrael Beitenu
Minister of Environmental Protection Gilad Erdan Likud
Minister of Finance Yuval Steinitz Likud
Minister for Home Front Defense Matan Vilnai Independence
Minister of Housing and Construction Ariel Atias Shas
Minister of Immigrant Absorption Sofa Landver Yisrael Beitenu
Minister of Improvement of Government Services Michael Eitan Likud
Minister of Industry, Trade, and Labour
Minister of Minorities
Shalom Simhon Independence
Minister of Information and Diaspora Yuli-Yoel Edelstein Likud
Minister of Internal Security Yitzhak Aharonovich Yisrael Beitenu
Minister of Justice Ya’akov Ne’eman Appointed[6]
Minister of Religious Services Ya’akov Margi Shas
Minister of Science and Technology Daniel Hershkowitz The Jewish Home
Minister of Tourism Stas Misezhnikov Yisrael Beitenu
Minister of Transportation, National Infrastructure and Road Safety Yisrael Katz Likud
Minister of Welfare and Social Services Moshe Kahlon Likud
Minister without Portfolio Benny Begin Likud
Meshulam Nahari Shas
Yossi Peled Likud

Deputy Ministers[edit]

Portfolio Minister Party
Deputy Minister of the Development of the Negev and Galilee Ayoob Kara Likud
Deputy Minister of Education Meir Porush United Torah Judaism
Deputy Minister of Finance Yitzhak Cohen Shas
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Daniel Ayalon Yisrael Beitenu
Deputy Minister of Health Yaakov Litzman[7] United Torah Judaism
Deputy Minister of Pensioner Affairs Lea Nass Likud
Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister’s Office Gila Gamliel Likud

References[edit]

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